Kategorie: Alan Turing (Seite 1 von 2)

Bücher für den Sommer

Es soll ja Leute geben, die nur im Urlaub Bücher lesen. Für die, aber auch für alle, die auf der Suche nach neuer Lektüre sind, hier ein paar Tipps für den Sommer, aber natürlich auch für jede andere Jahreszeit.

Lukas Hartmann: Der Sänger:
Historische Romane sind die Stärke des Schweizer Schriftstellers Lukas Hartmann, dessen Werke immer mit einer scheinbaren Leichtigkeit geschrieben, aber akribisch recherchiert sind. So wie in seinem jüngsten Roman “Der Sänger“. Erzählt wird die Geschichte von Joseph Schmidt, den seine Flucht vor den Nazis in die Schweiz führt, wo er nach schwerer Krankheit stirbt. (Diogenes, 22 Euro)

Ian McEwan: Maschinen wie ich:
Liebe, künstliche Intelligenz und die Frage, was eigentlich einen Menschen ausmacht – das sind die Themen in “Maschinen wie ich” des britischen Schriftstellers Ian McEwan. Spätestens wenn der brillante Mathematiker und Knacker des Enigma-Codes Alan Turing auftaucht, ist klar, dass Ian McEwan auch Science-Fiction-Elemente eingebaut hat, die den Roman umso interessanter machen. (Diogenes, 25 Euro)

Kate Connolly: Exit Brexit – Wie ich Deutsche wurde:
Auch wer das Wort “Brexit”nicht mehr hören kann und mit britischem Understatement nur die Augen verdreht, sollte sich “Exit Brexit” der Guardian-Korrespondentin Kate Connolly nicht entgehen lassen. Denn es gewährt einen wunderbaren Einblick in das Leben eines zweisprachigen Haushalts, das Staunen über typisch deutsche Verhaltensweisen und erklärt, weshalb es für viele Briten hierzulande nur folgerichtig war, auf den Brexit mit dem Antrag auf die deutsche Staatsangehörigkeit zu antworten. (Hanser, 19 Euro)

Matt Haig: Mach mal halblang: 
Das Internet ist wunderbar, denn man kann mit Freunden weltweit in Kontakt bleiben, Filme schauen und diesen Blog lesen. Aber es setzt die Menschen immer mehr unter Druck, weil man glaubt, ständig online sein zu müssen. Dass man sich öfter bewusst machen sollte, wie viel Zeit man online verbringt und dass es  oft besser ist, einfach mal nur die Umgebung zu genießen, dafür plädiert Matt Haig in “Mach mal halblang” – ganz ohne erhobenen Zeigefinger. (dtv, 14,90 Euro)

Robert Galbraith: Cormoran-Strike-Romane:
Noch ein Privatdetektiv, der in den Straßen Londons unterwegs ist – aber was für einer. Cormoran Strike hat in Afghanistan einen Unterschenkel verloren und versucht sich nach seinem Ausscheiden aus der britischen Armee mehr schlecht als recht als Privatdetektiv über Wasser zu halten. Als ihm die Arbeitsvermittlung eine Sekretärin schickt, weiß er, dass er sich deren Gehalt auf keinen Fall leisten kann. J.K. Rowling hat unter dem Pseudonym Robert Galbraith bis jetzt vier Cormoran-Strike-Romane geschrieben, die ersten drei sind mittlerweile mit Tom Burke in der Titelrolle  von der BBC verfilmt und hierzulande unter anderem auf Sky, Google Play Film oder Amazon Prime zu sehen. Wer dieses Genre mag und Strike kennen lernen will, sollte mit dem ersten Band “Der Ruf des Kuckucks” anfangen. (alle Bände bei Randomhouse, ab 9,99 Euro)

Ian McEwan: Maschinen wie ich

Es ist eine Art Paralleluniversum, in das Ian McEwan die Leser in seinem jüngsten Roman mitnimmt. Denn “Maschinen wie ich” spielt in Großbritannien im Jahr 1982 – allerdings einem anderen, als das, an das wir uns erinnern. Das Land hat den Falklandkrieg verloren,  Premierministerin Margaret Thatcher führt Wahlkampf gegen den Labour-Politiker Tony Benn und dank Alan Turing gibt es bereits in den 1980er Jahren Internet, Smartphones und selbstfahrende Autos. Charlie schlägt sich im London dieser Zeit durch und kratzt sein Geld zusammen, um sich einen der ersten Androiden, Adam, zu kaufen. Gerade als er den künstlichen Menschen geliefert bekommt, verliebt er sich in seine Nachbarin Miranda. Als Adam anfängt,  menschliche Gefühle und Eigenarten zu entwickeln, stellt sich nicht nur die Frage, wer mit wem in welcher Beziehung steht. Es geht im Grunde darum, was einen Menschen ausmacht und wann eine künstliche Lebensform menschlich ist.

“Der größere Mann hatte silbriges, nach hinten gekämmtes Haar, trug um den Hals einen lockeren braunen Seidenschal und eine Art Künstlerjoppe, die ihm schlaff von den Schultern hin.”

Ian McEwan beschäftigt sich auch in seinem neuesten Roman mit den Fragen unserer modernen Gesellschaft  und der Frage, wie wir Menschen darin leben und arbeiten wollen – angesichts der Klimakatastrophe, Umweltverschmutzung und des technischen Fortschritts, der Segen und Fluch zugleich ist. Dass er sich Elementen des Science-Fiction-Genres bedient, macht diese Fragen nicht weniger wichtig. Die 80er Jahre, die uns “Maschinen wie ich” in einem “Was-wäre-wenn”-Dreh der Geschichte vorführen, zeigen am Beispiel von Alan Turing auch, welche Auswirkungen heute unverständliches Verhalten von Regierung und Justiz nicht nur auf einen Mann, sondern auch auf die Gesellschaft als Ganzes haben können. Wäre – so Ian McEwan – Alan Turing für seine Verdienste um das Knacken des deutschen Enigma-Codes im Zweiten Weltkrieg gewürdigt, statt für seine Homosexualität verurteilt worden, so hätte der geniale Mathematiker nicht Selbstmord begangen, sondern dank seiner Forschung den technischen Fortschritt, inklusive der künstlichen Intelligenz, deutlich schneller voran gebracht. Und mit ihm auch die Frage nach dem, was den Menschen eigentlich ausmacht.

“Alan Turing hatte es in seiner Jugend oft gesagt und geschrieben: In dem Moment, da wir im Verhalten keinen Unterschied mehr zwischen Mensch und Maschine erkennen können, müssen wir der Maschine Menschlichkeit zuschreiben.”

“Maschinen wie ich” ist kein Buch, das man nebenher liest. Zuviel Wissen, Überlegung und Tiefe steckt in jedem scheinbar so leicht dahin geschriebenen Satz. Faszinierend ist die Geschichte, an die man sich auch nach dem Ende des Buches noch erinnert, allemal. Und sie zeigt, dass Ian McEwan ein wunderbarer Erzähler ist.

Anmerkung: Wer diesen Blog öfter liest oder mir auf Twitter folgt, weiß, dass ich schon einiges von Ian McEwan gelesen habe. Deshalb habe ich auch das englische Original “Machines like me” (Penguin, ca. 19£) vorbestellt – in der Hoffnung, es vor dem Erscheinen der deutschen Ausgabe beenden zu können. Allerdings hatte ich nicht mit der Schnelligkeit vom Diogenes-Verlag gerechnet, der mir das Rezensionsexemplar eine Woche vor dem offiziellen deutschen Erscheinungstermin auf die Türschwelle lieferte. Neugierig wie immer wenn neue Bücher den Weg zu mir finden, beschloss ich, einfach an der Stelle, an der ich gerade in der Originalversion war, in der deutschen Übersetzung weiterzulesen – was dank der wunderbaren Arbeit von Bernhard Robben nahtlos möglich war.

Ian McEwan: Maschinen wie ich. Diogenes, 25 Euro.
Das Buch wurde mir freundlicherweise vom Verlag zur Verfügung gestellt.

Walter Isaacson: The Innovators

Der Zugriff aufs Internet ist für viele so selbstverständlich wie das Radio einschalten oder fernsehen. Und das Smartphone ist unser ständiger Begleiter. Dass das so ist, haben wir zahlreichen Frauen und Männer zu verdanken, die die Idee von vernetzten Rechenmaschinen entwickelten, lange bevor die Wörter Internet und Computer erfunden waren.
In seinem Buch “The Innovators” beschreibt Walter Isaacson das Leben so unterschiedlicher Menschen wie Ada Lovelace, Konrad Zuse, Alan Turing und Steve Jobs, erklärt, was sie in ihren Forschungen antrieb. Das gelingt Isaacson wie schon in seiner Biografie über Steve Jobs deshalb so wunderbar, dass die Pioniere der digitalen Technik nicht bloß Namen bleiben, sondern zu Personen werden, die dem Leser nicht gleichgültig bleiben.

Im Falle von Alan Turing (Beträge über ihn auf diesem Blog sind hier zu finden), dem englischen Mathematiker, der maßgeblich an der Entschlüsselung der deutschen Enigma-Maschine im Zweiten Weltkrieg beteiligt war, beruft sich Isaacson des öfteren auf Andrew Hodges wunderbare Biografie “Enigma” (englischsprachiger Beitrag), was keineswegs abwertend gemeint ist. Im Gegenteil. Die Beschreibung von Turings Person und dem, was ihn sein Leben lang bewegte, ist beispielhaft für die der anderen Personen. Schade nur, dass Isaacson bei all der akribischen Beschreibung und Quellenangabe zwar erwähnt, dass Alan Turing einer Kollegin einen Heiratsantrag machte, die ihn trotz seiner Homosexualität heiraten wollte, den Namen Joan Clarke aber verschweigt.

“Sein ganzes Leben hindurch sollte Turing mit der Frage ringen, ob der menschliche Geist sich von einer deterministischen Maschine grundlegend unterscheidet oder nicht.”

Wer sich für Geschichte und speziell die Geschichte von Computern und Internet interessiert, bekommt mit “The Innovators” ein gut lesbares, ja spannendes Buch, das zudem mit umfangreichen Anmerkungen und Quellenangaben nicht nur die Recherche dokumentiert, sondern auch auf weiterführende Literatur hinweist. Von den insgesamt 638 Seiten sollte man sich keineswegs abschrecken lassen.

 

Walter Isaacson: The Innovators – Die Vordenker der digitalen Revolution von Ada Lovelace bis Steve Jobs. C. Bertelsmann, 20 Euro.
Das Buch wurde mir freundlicherweise vom Verlag zur Verfügung gestellt.

David Lagercrantz: Fall of Man in Wilmslow 

It is a novel. A fiction, not a documentary about the life of Alan Turing. This is important because people tend to take every word for granted, weighing it carefully, comparing it to proved facts about the man who helped to break Nazi Germany’s Enigma code.

David Lagercrantz takes those facts and some more (Alan’s homosexuality, his somehow awkward behaviour, his genius) and unfolds his story from the very last day of Alan’s life and the moment his corpse is discovered by a local policeman. This man, Detective Constable Leonard Corell, takes a very special interest in this case that seems to be nothing more than suicide. Step by step he dives deeper into the life and thinking of Alan Turing – a journey which doesn’t leave his own life untouched.

“(I)f indeed anyone was an unbreakable code then it was Alan himself.”

“The Fall of the Man in Wilmslow” is a thrilling story that hooks you from the very first page. If (and this is an if I only can claim for myself) you already know something about Alan Turing’s life and impact. Then you find hints you have read elsewhere, imagine pictures, films or documentaries you have seen or listen to and you will be able to find your pace between fact and fiction this novel is constantly mixing up. If you haven’t stumbled upon Alan Turing at all, you probably will be lost in between the complexity of the story that hops from the past to the present and back again, changes perspectives and comes  up with names and places you might find confusing because you have never heard of them. If you still want to find out more about Alan Turing, start with a biography (or click on the link given below).

FallOfMan

David Lagercrantz: Fall of the Man in Wilmslow. The death and life of Alan Turing. A Novel, MacLehose Press, about 9£.

You find more about Alan Turing here on my blog.

Jim Ottaviani: Alan Turing in a comic book

Welcome, reader! Or should I write: Welcome user? Either way, it may be possible that you won’t be able to read this at all: Without the help of Alan Turing the invention of modern computers may have been quite different. Even if you are not a mathematician you may have stumbled upon Alan Turing and you may connect his name  with the Enigma. A machine that Germans used to encrypt their messages during World War II. and nearly helped them win that war. Of course this is the story of the Comic book “Alan Turing Decoded” by Jim Ottaviani and Leland Purvis which I think can be seen as a summary of Andrew Hodges’ “The Imitation Game” – at least this is what came to my mind when I enjoyed reading it and of course I thought of the film, too (sorry, fangirl here).

A bit different

But the book also brings that brilliant man Alan Turing (of course he had lots of helping hands back in World War II in Bletchley Park) to life who always was a bit awkward and different compared to others. He ran miles on end, wore a gas mask as a prevention from hay fever, chained his mug to his heater in his office at Bletchley Park  – and he was a homosexual when this was illegal in Great Britain. Sadly enough he was prosecuted for that  – a treatment that may have been the reason why Alan took his own life. Though the circumstances are still unclear as Jim Ottaviani writes in his author’s note.

Of course this beautiful made comic book isn’t a documentary or biography on Alan Turing, so readers shouldn’t take any word or any picture as a historical fact. But it is a lovely way of getting the story of Alan Turing out to readers who don’t want to be bored by huge books with endless footage and bibliographical lists (although there are a few in this 232 page hardcopy, too) – but being entertained and touched by an intriguing life story with a tragic ending.

Photo: Petra Breunig

Photo: Petra Breunig

Jim Ottaviani, Leland Purvis (Illustrations): The Imitation Game, Alan Turing Decoded. Abrams, round 24$, £16, €16.

You may find more on Alan Turing on my blog – some of them are in German.

Prof Alan Turing decoded

What is the point in writing another biography of Alan Turing more than 60 years after his death? And what can be really new when you know Andrew Hodges’ “Enigma” which is both a thrilling approach to the professional life of the man who helped breaking the German Enigma code in the Second World War and an look inside the man who wasn’t allowed to live and love as a homosexual man in the UK of the 50s?

The point is that the author Dermot Turing, is Alan’s nephew and although he has never met his uncle, he takes the reader with “Prof – Alan Turing decoded” inside the Turing family, presenting not only pictures you may not have seen before but also letters and notes scribbled by Alan when thinking about his work (which makes me wonder how his third notebook which was sold at an auction earlier this year may look like. ) Although the book is – as always when it comes to very specific scientific topics – not always an easy read. But even if you don’t have the brain of a mathematician  or a computer expert, you’ll can’t help but to be in awe of a man who apparently was awkward and brilliant as a codebreaker in Bletchley Park and as the father of the computer age, somehow way ahead of his time and down to earth in a stunningly pragmatic way.

“He was a strange character, a very reserved sort, but he mixed in with everyone quite well.”

A way that wasn’t always an easy one to cope with. Imagine Alan at your door at any time of day without any notice to announce his visit or him walking away when he found a conversation boring. But he easily connected with children whom he met on equal levels and talked seriously about such things as if God could catch a cold when he sat on wet grass.

“Prof” is a biography about a man “who had something special which the rest of us do not”. It is worth reading.

 

Dermot Turing: Prof – Alan Turing decoded. A biography. The history press, about 20€/ 16£.

Further reading:
Alan Turing – his work and impact.

Bletchley Park – where the codebreakers are still alive

At the beginning: two confessions.
The first: The name “Bletchley Park” sounds familiar for me since years. I can’t remember why or can’t put my finger on the occasion when the place where hugely intelligent minds cracked the German Enigma code during the Second World War first appeared in my knowledge. And the fact that “Enigma” is connected to Alan Turing was always hidden somewhere in the far regions of my brain – maybe because of some history teacher back at school (a bow to him whoever he was).

The second: it needed a Benedict Cumberbatch to get my mind to work and bringing my knowledge back to me. So when it was confirmed that Benedict was about to play Alan Turing in “The Imitation Game” I happily dived into the topic, reading Andrew Hodges’ “The Enigma” and literally getting my hands on any possible information about the codebreaker that helped to shorten the war and saved millions of life. And soon enough I made up my mind to see  Bletchley Park for myself, a wish that came true in September of 2015.

Only about an hour train drive from London, Bletchley Park is a space packed with a huge pile of information about Enigma (there are lots of different machines on display),  both a replica of the original Bombe and the one used in the film “The Imitation Game” (that helped decoding the German messages very fast) and insight looks into life at wartime Bletchley Park with the help of sounds and voices at special spots throughout the place and with offices decorated with very much love to every single detail so that the rooms give the impressions their inhabitants are just off for a lunch break (as the sheet of paper in their typewriters say).

Alan Turing's desk Photo: Petra Breunig

Alan Turing’s desk Photo: Petra Breunig

Especially in Alan Turing’s office, looking at his desk with papers spreading everywhere, his wardrobe where clothes are stuffed carelessly inside and the radiator with a mug chained to, ready to be used in a moment, the past seems to be so alive that I expected Alan Turing tapping me on the shoulder when I carefully stared at his desk, taking a picture.

With the special exhibition  “The Imitation Game” about to end on November 1st 2015, some Benedict Cumberbatch fans who are in London for “Hamlet” at the Barbican may think about a visit – they should make up their mind.

[Update: The Imitation Game-exhibition will be open at least till July 2016  “due to popular demand”.

 

 

What Alan Turing was looking for at Ebermannstadt

It is not a peculiarity of our times that the NSA – America’s National Security Agency – wants to know everything, even in the most distant places of our planet. And Ticom (Target Intelligence Commitee), NSA’s predecessor, wanted just the same.

In the Second World War the future of the free world also depended on their spy work and therefore it isn’t surprising at all that Ticom of course knew about the activities at Feuerstein Castle near Ebermannstadt, in the northern part of Bavaria, Germany. Activities which were peculiar and mysterious at the same time. NSA documents which cover that part of history are only known to the public since 2009. They prove the fact that the British mathematician Alan Turing was on his way to Ebermannstadt in the last months of WW II. According to that documents German physician Oskar Vierling worked within the castle. The building which never has been a castle, was masked as a hospital – including the sign of the Red Cross on its roof – but was in fact a laboratory run by the Wehrmacht and the German Foreign Office. Up to 250 people worked in Feuerstein Castle on encryption, radio links and on the improvement of the encryption machine SZ 42.  Vierling who in 1941 established  the company that today still bears his name, worked on signals that should control torpedoes and set mines on fire.

On April 16th 1945, some three weeks before Nazi Germany surrendered on May 8th, Ticom secret agents arrived at Feuerstein Castle. The American and British experts on news and communication technique were hitchhiking all the way through Germany till they arrived in Upper Franconia. The last part up to the castle itself, they walked. They hoped to find German encryption devices there, not because they hoped to use it for themselves. “It was much more important that these devices were not lost to the Russians,” Rudolf Staritz, a tech expert on news, says.

“Turing wasn’t able to breach Vierling’s messages.”

Alan Turing came across Vierling much earlier. Turing who at that time was breaking German messages at Bletchley Park, the central site of the United Kingdom’s Government Code and Cypher School known for its efficiency and its brilliant minds. But the messages which went to and from Feuerstein Castle and the German town of Hannover on a regular bases, remained a mystery even to genius Turing. “Turing wasn’t able to breach Vierling’s messages. So he wanted to go to Feuerstein and find out what was going on there for himself,” Staritz says. The NSA documents don’t reveal, however, how long Alan Turing stayed at Feuerstein Castle in the spring of 1945. That the brilliant codebreaker was actually there, experts consider as a fact. “There are lots of legends when it comes to Turing’s life. But we can take it for granted that he was in Ebermannstadt,” Jochan Viehoff says. He is Head of Nixdorf Museum in the German town Paderborn.

It seems that after the war, in April 1945, Vierling soon attached himself to the new situation – according to Ticom report dated May 1st 1945: “When Vierling and some of his colleagues were found, they were very eager to talk about their work and agreed to help rebuilding the lab and the parts of the project, so they could go on with their work.” The secret agents assumed that Vierling hoped to continue his work within his laboratory at Feuerstein Castle after the end of Nazi regime. But the cooperation terminated when allies’ superiors on August 16th 1945 ordered Vierling’s arrest. The agents removed all interiors and research results from Feuerstein. Staritz doesn’t believe they used it for their own research. “The Americans technically were much superior compared to the Germans.”

More about Alan Turing on this blog click here.
Learn more about Alan Turing here.

The German version of this article was originally published in Fränkischer Tag on January 22nd 2015.
The author, Christoph Hägele, kindly granted the permission to translate it.

Alan Turing – His work and impact

If you stumbled across Alan Turing because of the film “The Imitation Game” starring Benedict Cumberbatch in the lead role, you may be aware of Andrew Hodges’ biography “The Enigma” – the basis of Graham Moore’s Oscar awarded screenplay.

A much deeper inside look at Alan Turing’s work which helped breaking the German enigma code, shortened the Second World War by at least two years and saved millions of lives, you should read the huge book “Alan Turing – His work and impact” by S. Barry Cooper and Jan van Leewen. Yes, there are lots of mathematical theories, even formulas (something very awful for people like me unable to cope with numbers) but the more than 870 pages, accompanied by indexes and bibliographies are worth reading, browsing through essays about and from Alan.

“He was a genius: he was ‘a wonder of the world’.
Bernards Richards about Alan Turing

One essay that strikes me most  – besides the ones by Alan himself which offer a look inside the brain of a man a colleague described as “a Wonder of the world” – is the piece “Why Turing cracked the Enigma code and the Germans did not” by Klaus Schmeh. The German computer scientist explains that Germans were unable to bring their cryptographers together to find a possible weakness in the Enigma code itself. Despite the fact that German experts were aware of a possible breach, Britain’s success in breaking Enigma was only revealed in the 1970s when details about the codebreaker’s work at Bletchley Park became public.

“Alan Turing – His work and impact” may not be an easy read. But it is worth every try.

S.Barry Cooper, Jan van Leeuwen: Alan Turing – His work an impact, Elsevier, £ 53 can be ordered here.

Foto: pb

Foto: pb


Alan Turing – the codebreaker

It was a secret world behind the Victorian facade of the house in Bletchley Park some 70 kilometres Northwest of London. At the beginning of the second World War the British government realised that it would be essential to decode the messages of Nazi Germany to win the war. But all messages were encrypted with the help of Enigma machines – codes that everybody believed were unbreakable. At Bletchley Park analytics from all over Britain were gathered, sworn to secrecy and set to shifts 24 hours a day – a work that would be useless at the end of every day when the Germans changed their codes.

Alan Turing (Benedict Cumberbatch) in a trailer of "The Imitation Game". Screenshot: pb

Alan Turing (Benedict Cumberbatch) in a trailer of “The Imitation Game”. Screenshot: pb

 

“The Imitation Game” which hits German cinemas at January 22nd celebrates and focuses on codebreaker Alan Turing, the unsung hero who helped to win the war for the allies. It is believed today that he shortened the war for about two years and saved millions of lives. Alan Turing (played by Benedict Cumberbatch) is one of the first experts in Bletchley Park. Born in 1912, he has just finished his studies in Cambridge and is “an odd duck” according to his mother and colleagues. In his job interview right at the beginning of the film he calls himself one of the best mathematicians in the world, a genius who somehow lives in his own world but he discovers that Enigma can only be beaten by another machine. A machine –  the Turing bombe as it is called later –  that would work without interruptions and which he is eager to build against all odds. Only after Alan discovers by chance that some words will appear in every German message he and his colleagues are able to reduce the unbelievable numbers of possible codes so that the bombe is finally able to do its work. It’s an irony of history that the arrogant greeting “Heil Hitler” – “Hail to Hitler” helps the allies to win the war because these words are in fact hidden in every message.

But the life of the codebreakers at Bletchley Park isn’t to get easier at all. It is Alan who knowing that homosexuality is illegal tries to hide his biggest secret and protect his privacy while – at least in the film – is suspected to be a Russian spy. After World War II he isn’t celebrated as a war hero but sentenced to chemical castration to “heal” his homosexuality. But the oestrogens not only caused growing breasts but left Alan unable to concentrate on his beloved work and he killed himself in 1954.

His work which is the basis of the modern computer technique and the internet was classified till 1970s. Queen Elizabeth granted Alan an Royal pardon on December 24th 2013 after the British Parliament refused to pardon Alan in 2011, even after former Prime Minister Gordon Brown apologized 2009 on behalf of the British government: “I am very proud to say: we’re sorry. You deserved so much better.”

Read my review of the film here.

The German version of this blog entry was first published in Fränkischer Tag and on infranken.de.

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